The Arab Springs

Lana Haroun

The Social and Economic Bases of Ennahdha Power: Khaldunian and Tocquevillian Reflections on the Tunisian Elections


Tunisia is a small land at the center of the world where the spirit of freedom knows no fear and no borders. But it was the last place anyone expected to ignite transcontinental revolution – not in Egypt and Syria and certainly not in Spain, Wisconsin and Tibet. The Tunisian people used the elections of October 2011 to begin building democracy, choosing Ennahdha as the vehicle – and temporary embodiment – of their quest. In exploring the patterns of their votes, we have a rare opportunity to view the depth and multiplicity of their divisions as well as the fist steps toward treating them instead of suppressing them.

Urban Backlash against Democracy: Battling the Tyranny of the Majority or the Rise of Rural Power?

Egypt’s democratic revolution has unleashed countless power struggles filled with heroism, treachery, and bloodshed. Still, there is no end in sight. Egypt has seen many revolutions and it is certain to see even more. Democracy has not failed in Egypt. On the contrary, it has empowered millions who never dreamed of freedom because they devoted everything to daily survival and had nothing left for wishful thinking about a better future.

Egypt’s Revolutionary Elections


Egypt’s revolution has just begun. The closer we examine the voting patterns as well as the partisan alliances and counter alliances, the more we understand that in district after district – in city, town, and countryside – Egypt’s divisions and dreams were everywhere on display with a poignancy and desperation that we have never before seen so clearly and that we will learn to expect as commonplace for many years to come.

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